The kidneys have important roles in maintaining health. When healthy, the kidneys maintain the body's internal equilibrium of water and minerals (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfate). Those acidic metabolism end products that the body cannot get rid of via respiration are also excreted through the kidneys. The kidneys also function as a part of the endocrine system producing erythropoietin and calcitriol. Erythropoietin is involved in the production of red blood cells and calcitriol plays a role in bone formation.
In medicine dialysis (from Greek dialusis, meaning dissolution, dia, meaning through, and lysis, meaning loosening) is a process for removing waste and excess water from the blood, and is primarily used to provide an artificial replacementfor lost kidney function in people with renal failure. Dialysis may be used for those with an acute disturbance in kidney function (acute kidney injury, previously acute renal failure) or for those with progressive but chronically worsening kidney function–a state known as chronic kidney disease stage 5 (previously chronic renal failure or end-stage kidney disease).
Dialysis is an imperfect treatment to replace kidney function because it does not correct the endocrine ;functions of the kidney. Dialysis treatments replace some of these functions through diffusion (waste removal) and ultrafiltration (fluid removal).
Dialysis works on the principles of the diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration of fluid across a semi-permeable membrane. Diffusion describes a property of substances in water. Substances in water tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Blood flows by one side of a semi-permeable membrane, and a dialysate, or special dialysis fluid, flows by the opposite side. A semipermeable membrane is a thin layer of material that contains various sized holes, or pores. Smaller solutes and fluid pass through the membrane, but the membrane blocks the passage of larger substances (for example, red blood cells, large proteins). This replicates the filtering process which takes place in the kidneys, when the blood enters the kidneys and the larger substances are separated from the smaller ones in the glomerulus.
TRANSFER is the primary regulator of red blood cell formation in mammals is a glycoprotein extracted from CHO cell cultures into which the human erythropoietin gone has been introduced by recombinant DNA technology and directly stimulates the erythropoiesis.
Iron sucrose Injectable is a sterile aqueous complex, non-phylogenic aqueous complex containing 20 mg/ml of Iron suitable for intravenous administration.